/ Activities /
Chandrayaan-2 mission is a highly complex mission, which represents a significant
technological leap compared to the previous missions of ISRO. It comprised an
Orbiter, Lander and Rover to explore the unexplored South Pole of the Moon. The
mission is designed to expand the lunar scientific knowledge through detailed study
of topography, seismography, mineral identification and distribution, surface
chemical composition, thermo-physical characteristics of top soil and composition of
the tenuous lunar atmosphere, leading to a new understanding of the origin and
evolution of the Moon.
After the injection of Chandrayaan-2, a series of maneuvers were carried out to
raise its orbit and on August 14, 2019, following Trans Lunar Insertion (TLI)
maneuver, the spacecraft escaped from orbiting the earth and followed a path that
took it to the vicinity of the Moon. On August 20, 2019, Chandrayaan-2 was
successfully inserted into lunar orbit. While orbiting the moon in a 100 km lunar
polar orbit, on September 02, 2019, Vikram Lander was separated from the Orbiter in
preparation for landing. Subsequently, two de-orbit maneuvers were performed on
Vikram Lander so as to change its orbit and begin circling the moon in a 100 km x 35
km orbit. Vikram Lander descent was as planned and normal performance was observed
upto an altitude of 2.1 km. Subsequently communication from lander to the ground
stations was lost.
The Orbiter placed in its intended orbit around the Moon will enrich our
understanding of the moon’s evolution and mapping of the minerals and water
molecules in Polar regions, using its eight state-of-the-art scientific instruments.
The Orbiter camera is the highest resolution camera (0.3 m) in any lunar mission so
far and will provide high resolution images which will be immensely useful to the
global scientific community. The precise launch and mission management has ensured a
long life of almost seven years instead of the planned one year.
Chandrayaan-2 has several science payloads to expand the lunar scientific knowledge
through detailed study of topography, seismography, mineral identification and
distribution, surface chemical composition, thermo-physical characteristics of top
soil and composition of the tenuous lunar atmosphere, leading to a new understanding
of the origin and evolution of the Moon.
The Orbiter payloads will conduct remote-sensing observations from a 100 km orbit
while the Lander and Rover payloads will perform in-situ measurements near the
For understanding of the Lunar composition, it is planned to identify the elements
and mapping its distribution on the lunar surface both at global and In-situ level.
In addition detailed 3 dimensional mapping of the lunar regolith will be done.
Measurements on the near surface plasma environment and electron density in the
Lunar ionosphere will be studied. Thermo-physical property of the lunar surface and
seismic activities will also be measured. Water molecule distribution will be
studied using infra red spectroscopy, synthetic aperture radiometry & polarimetry as
well as mass spectroscopy techniques.
The GSLV Mk-III will carry Chandrayaan 2 to its designated orbit. This three-stage
vehicle is India's most powerful launcher to date, and is capable of launching 4-ton
class of satellites to the Geosynchronous Transfer Orbit (GTO).
Its components are
S200 solid rocket boosters
L110 liquid stage
C25 upper stage
15th August, 2003: Chandrayaan programme is announced by Prime Minister Atal Bihari
22nd October, 2008: Chandrayaan 1 takes off from the Satish Dhawan Space Centre at
8th November, 2008: Chandrayaan 1 enters a Lunar Transfer Trajectory
14th November, 2008: The Moon Impact Probe ejects from Chandrayaan 1 and crashes
near the lunar South Pole — confirms presence of water molecules on Moon's surface
28th August, 2009: End of Chandrayaan 1 programme