November 23, 2022
The primary mandate of HSFC is to spearhead ISRO's Gaganyaan programme through co-ordinated
efforts and focus all the activities that are carried out in other ISRO centres, research labs
in India, Indian academia and Industries towards accomplishing the mission. HSFC, as the lead
Centre for Human space flight activities conforms to high standards of reliability and human
safety in undertaking R&D activities in new technology areas, such as life support systems,
Human Factors Engineering, Bioastronautics, Crew training and Human rating & certification.
These areas would constitute important components for future sustained human space flight
activities like rendezvous and docking, space station building and interplanetary collaborative
manned missions to Moon/Mars and near-earth asteroids.
Gaganyaan project envisages demonstration of human spaceflight capability by launching crew of 3
members to an orbit of 400 km for a 3 days mission and bring them back safely to earth, by landing
in Indian sea waters.
The project is accomplished through an optimal strategy by considering inhouse expertise, experience
of Indian industry, intellectual capabilities of Indian academia & research institutions along
with cutting edge technologies available with international agencies. The pre-requisites for
Gaganyaan mission include development of many critical technologies including human rated launch
vehicle for carrying crew safely to space, Life Support System to provide an earth like environment
to crew in space, crew emergency escape provision and evolving crew management aspects for training,
recovery and rehabilitation of crew.
Various precursor missions are planned for demonstrating the Technology Preparedness Levels before
carrying out the actual Human Space Flight mission.
These demonstrator missions include Integrated Air Drop Test (IADT), Pad Abort Test (PAT) and Test
Vehicle (TV) flights. Safety and reliability of all systems will be proven in unmanned missions
preceding manned mission.
Human rated LVM3 - HLVM3
LVM3 rocket - The well proven and reliable heavy lift launcher of ISRO, is identified as the launch
vehicle for Gaganyaan mission. It consists of solid stage, liquid stage and cryogenic stage. All
systems in LVM3 launch vehicle are re-configured to meet human rating requirements and christened
Human Rated LVM3. HLVM3 will be capable of launching the Orbital Module to an intended Low Earth
Orbit of 400 km.
HLVM3 consists of Crew Escape System (CES) powered by a set of quick acting, high burn rate solid
motors which ensures that Crew Module along with crew is taken to a safe distance in case of any
emergency either at launch pad or during ascent phase.
Orbital Module (OM) that will be Orbiting Earth comprises of Crew Module (CM) and Service Module
(SM). OM is equipped with state-of-the-art avionics systems with adequate redundancy considering
CM is the habitable space with Earth like environment in space for the crew. It is of double walled
construction consisting of pressurized metallic Inner Structure and unpressurised External Structure
with Thermal Protection System (TPS). It houses the crew interfaces, human centric products, life
support system, avionics and deceleration systems. It is also designed for re-entry to ensure safety
of the crew during descent till touchdown.
SM will be used for providing necessary support to CM while in orbit. It is an unpressurized
structure containing thermal system, propulsion system, power systems, avionics systems and
New technologies being developed for Gaganyaan
Human safety is of paramount importance in Gaganyaan mission. In order to ensure the same, various new
technologies comprising of Engineering systems and Human centric systems are being developed and
Crew training for Gaganyaan
Astronaut Training Facility established in Bengaluru caters to Classroom training, Physical Fitness
training, Simulator training and Flight suit training. Training modules cover academic courses,
Gaganyaan Flight Systems, Micro-gravity familiarization through Parabolic Flights, Aero-medical
training, Recovery & Survival training, mastering of Flight Procedures and training on Crew
Training Simulators. Aero medical training, Periodical flying practice and Yoga are also included as
part of the training.
Milestones achieved so far
Test vehicle for characterisation of Crew Escape System ready at SDSC
Major milestones planned