The idea of undertaking an Indian scientific mission to Moon was initially mooted in a meeting of the Indian Academy of Sciences in 1999 that was followed up by discussions in the Astronautical Society of India in 2000. Based on the recommendations made by the learned members of these forums, a National Lunar Mission Task Force was constituted by the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO). Leading Indian scientists and technologists participated in the deliberations of the Task Force that provided an assessment on the feasibility of an Indian Mission to the Moon as well as dwelt on the focus of such a mission and its possible configuration.

After detailed discussions, it was unanimously recommended that India should undertake the Mission to Moon, particularly in view of the renewed international interest in moon with several exciting missions planned for the new millennium. In addition, such a mission could provide the needed thrust to basic science and engineering research in the country including new challenges to ISRO to go beyond the Geostationary Orbit. Further, such a project could also help bringing in young talents to the arena of fundamental research. The academia would also find participation in such a project intellectually rewarding.

Subsequently, Government of India approved ISRO's proposal for the first Indian Moon Mission, called Chandrayaan-1 in November 2003.

The Chandrayaan-1 mission performed high-resolution remote sensing of the moon in visible, near infrared (NIR), low energy X-rays and high-energy X-ray regions. One of the objectives was to prepare a three-dimensional atlas (with high spatial and altitude resolution) of both near and far side of the moon. It aimed at conducting chemical and mineralogical mapping of the entire lunar surface for distribution of mineral and chemical elements such as Magnesium, Aluminium, Silicon, Calcium, Iron and Titanium as well as high atomic number elements such as Radon, Uranium & Thorium with high spatial resolution.

Various mission planning and management objectives were also met. The mission goal of harnessing the science payloads, lunar craft and the launch vehicle with suitable ground support systems including Deep Space Network (DSN) station were realised, which were helpful for future explorations like the Mars Orbiter Mission. Mission goals like spacecraft integration and testing, launching and achieving lunar polar orbit of about 100 km, in-orbit operation of experiments, communication/ telecommand, telemetry data reception, quick look data and archival for scientific utilisation by scientists were also met.

Lift off View of PSLV-C11

Launch Vehicle

Chandrayaan was launched aboard PSLV C-11 on October 22, 2008, which was an XL variant of ISRO's PSLV, one of world's most reliable launchers. PSLV was later used to launch the Mars Orbiter Mission in 2013.

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Chandrayaan spacecraft was a cube of side 1.5 m and was based on the I-1-K bus which was used in the IRS series of satellites. It also carried the Moon Impact Probe which landed on the moon on November 14, 2009.

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Ground segmant of chandrayaan-1

Ground Segment

Prior to Chandrayaan's launch, the Indian Deep Space Network (IDSN) was developed, which was a mission requirement. IDSN comprises of a 32 m and an 18 m diameter antennas located at Byalalu.

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Chandrayaan-1 Findings


The data provided by Chandrayaan's 11 payloads were used by the scientific community to study the Moon and its environment and played a significant role in bettering our understanding of the Moon.

Chandrayaan - 1 : Results