Inching towards the edge of discovery
Are you ready for the unknown?
Chandrayaan 2 is an Indian lunar mission that will boldly go where no country has ever gone before — the Moonâ€™s south polar region. Through this effort, the aim is to improve our understanding of the Moon — discoveries that will benefit India and humanity as a whole. These insights and experiences aim at a paradigm shift in how lunar expeditions are approached for years to come — propelling further voyages into the farthest frontiers.
Why are we going to the Moon?
The Moon is the closest cosmic body at which space discovery can be attempted and documented. It is also a promising test bed to demonstrate technologies required for deep-space missions. Chandrayaan 2 attempts to foster a new age of discovery, increase our understanding of space, stimulate the advancement of technology, promote global alliances, and inspire a future generation of explorers and scientists.
What are the scientific objectives of Chandrayaan 2? Why explore the lunar South Pole?
The Moon provides us the best linkage to Earthâ€™s early history and an undisturbed record of the nascent Solar System environment. While a few mature models do exist, the Moon's origin still needs further explanations. Extensive mapping of the lunar surface will aid us in studying variations in its composition — an essential piece of information in tracing the Moon's origin and evolution. Evidence of water molecules — discovered by Chandrayaan 1 — and the extent of its distribution on the lunar surface and sub-surface also require further studies.
The lunar South Pole is especially interesting because a larger section of its surface stays in the shadow than the North Pole. There is a possibility of the presence of water in permanently shadowed areas around it. In addition, the south polar region has craters that are cold traps, containing a fossilised record of the early Solar System.
Chandrayaan 2 will use the Vikram lander and Pragyan rover to attempt a soft landing in a high plain between two craters — Manzinus C and Simpelius N — at a latitude of about 70Â° south.
Launcher and the Spacecraft
The GSLV Mk-III is Indiaâ€™s most powerful launcher to date, and has been completely designed and fabricated from within the country.Click here >
The Orbiter will observe the lunar surface and relay communication between Earth and Chandrayaan 2's Lander — Vikram.Click here >
The lander is designed to execute India's first soft landing on the lunar surface.Click here >
The rover is a 6-wheeled, AI-powered vehicle named Pragyan, which translates to â€˜wisdomâ€™ in Sanskrit.Click here >
Timeline of the mission
18th September, 2008
Prime Minister Manmohan Singh approves the Chandrayaan2 lunar mission
July 9, 2019 to July 16, 2019
Landing on Moon
September 6, 2019
Scientific Experiment on Moon
1 Lunar day (14 earth days)
Will be operational for 1 year
Chandrayaan 2 Large Area Soft X-ray Spectrometer
Elemental composition of the Moon
Imaging IR Spectrometer
Mineralogy mapping and water-ice confirmation
Synthetic Aperture Radar L & S Band
Polar-region mapping and sub-surface water-ice confirmation
Orbiter High Resolution Camera
High-res topography mapping
Chandraâ€™s Surface Thermo-physical Experiment
Thermal conductivity and temperature gradient
Alpha Particle X-ray Spectrometer and Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscope
In-situ elemental analysis and abundance in the vicinity of landing site