Chandrayaan2 Home

Expanding the boundaries of human knowledge

Inching towards the edge of discovery

Are you ready for the unknown?

Chandrayaan 2 is an Indian lunar mission that will boldly go where no country has ever gone before — the Moon’s south polar region. Through this effort, the aim is to improve our understanding of the Moon — discoveries that will benefit India and humanity as a whole. These insights and experiences aim at a paradigm shift in how lunar expeditions are approached for years to come — propelling further voyages into the farthest frontiers.

Why are we going to the Moon?

The Moon is the closest cosmic body at which space discovery can be attempted and documented. It is also a promising test bed to demonstrate technologies required for deep-space missions. Chandrayaan 2 attempts to foster a new age of discovery, increase our understanding of space, stimulate the advancement of technology, promote global alliances, and inspire a future generation of explorers and scientists.

What are the scientific objectives of Chandrayaan 2? Why explore the lunar South Pole?

The Moon provides us the best linkage to Earth’s early history and an undisturbed record of the nascent Solar System environment. While a few mature models do exist, the Moon's origin still needs further explanations. Extensive mapping of the lunar surface will aid us in studying variations in its composition — an essential piece of information in tracing the Moon's origin and evolution. Evidence of water molecules — discovered by Chandrayaan 1 — and the extent of its distribution on the lunar surface and sub-surface also require further studies.

The lunar South Pole is especially interesting because a larger section of its surface stays in the shadow than the North Pole. There is a possibility of the presence of water in permanently shadowed areas around it. In addition, the south polar region has craters that are cold traps, containing a fossilised record of the early Solar System.

Chandrayaan 2 will use the Vikram lander and Pragyan rover to attempt a soft landing in a high plain between two craters — Manzinus C and Simpelius N — at a latitude of about 70° south.

What makes Chandrayaan 2 special?

1st space mission to conduct a soft landing on the Moon's south polar region

1st Indian expedition to attempt a soft landing on the lunar surface with home-grown technology

1st Indian mission to explore the lunar terrain with home-grown technology

4th country ever to soft land on the lunar surface

Launcher and the Spacecraft

Launcher

The GSLV Mk-III is India’s most powerful launcher to date, and has been completely designed and fabricated from within the country.

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Orbiter

The Orbiter will observe the lunar surface and relay communication between Earth and Chandrayaan 2's Lander — Vikram.

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Vikram Lander

The lander is designed to execute India's first soft landing on the lunar surface.

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Pragyan Rover

The rover is a 6-wheeled, AI-powered vehicle named Pragyan, which translates to ‘wisdom’ in Sanskrit.

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Timeline of the mission

18th September, 2008

Prime Minister Manmohan Singh approves the Chandrayaan2 lunar mission

Mission Planning

Launch Window

July 9, 2019 to July 16, 2019

Landing on Moon

September 6, 2019

Scientific Experiment on Moon

1 Lunar day (14 earth days)

Orbital Experiment

Will be operational for 1 year

Key payloads

Chandrayaan 2 Large Area Soft X-ray Spectrometer

Elemental composition of the Moon

Imaging IR Spectrometer

Mineralogy mapping and water-ice confirmation

Synthetic Aperture Radar L & S Band

Polar-region mapping and sub-surface water-ice confirmation

Orbiter High Resolution Camera

High-res topography mapping

Chandra’s Surface Thermo-physical Experiment

Thermal conductivity and temperature gradient

Alpha Particle X-ray Spectrometer and Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscope

In-situ elemental analysis and abundance in the vicinity of landing site